Mankind has always sought to understand where we have come from, where we go to and who is in control of our destiny. There have been gods and goddesses since time immemorial. They have usually sat "up (or down) there". The wheeling stars provide the perfect foreground for Heaven. As western ideas of heaven and hell have changed under the influence of rulers, philosophers, astronomers, astrologers and writers, so poets, artists, sculptors, manuscript illustrators and craftspersons have cloaked those ideas and made them available for their patrons and for ordinary people. In particular, the lecture considers … i) the extraordinary influence that Plato and Aristotle had on the shaping of all thought about the Heavens until the late Renaissance; ii) how the Church and the Establishment moulded the ideas of the Greek philosophers and astronomers to build a heavenly cosmology to meet its own ends. In many ways, this impeded the progress of scientific and philosophical thought until the Islamic influence and the Renaissance gave birth to the Enlightenment.